A third-generation solar photovoltaic (PVT)and thermal panel was developed and patented. Its field tests have began both in the north Netherlands and Turkey to cover the entire climatic spectrum of Europe and other countries on the globe. This technology has the following attributes, which will help decarbonization efforts by utilizing solar energy in urban areas with maximum efficiency and minimum environmental footprint:
- A combination of flat-plate collector and PVT technology for enhanced thermal and electrical power efficiency. Total efficiency up to 90%
- Total exergy efficiency up to 80%
- Additional power generation even after sunset due to its sandwiched phase change material (PCM) thermal storage layer. See Illustration 1
- Power generation for up to 6 hours using to the back-radiation effect through the Thermo-electric generator sets all sandwiched in the same solar panel.
- Self cooling with heat pipes.
- No panel circulation pump necessary, which drains the electrical power output in many conventional PVT units sold.
- Heat pipes are used instead of circulation pumps
- Flow-controllable special heat pipes for optimum energy and exergy output.
- Minimum carbon footprint
- Cost effective
- Modular set for climate and region adjustable products
- Demand oriented modularity
- On-board thermal energy storage, controlled by heat pipes
- Adaptibility to aerospace: May be used in space labs, space stations, spaceships and space shift to generate both electric power and heat. When regular PV panels in the space observe the sun they heat up ad if they are integrated to the ship fuselage their heat may not be easily expelled for cooling the PV panels (A necessary action to preserve PV efficiency). This new PVT system may provide both power and useful heat, which is also essential for spaceship cabins. This new system also provides emergency heat and power.
- Self healing with low-pressure heat pipes and the PCM layer
- High resilience and reliability due to optimum sized cassette type of modularity
See Illustration 2
- High Redundancy
- Cassette type PVT modules in an array with parallel connections increase the reliability
- May be active in mobile, civilian and military field data centers at the highest Tier FourPLUS Mode of 99.999% reliability
- Lowest Solar Power Utilization Effectiveness (PUE) of 1.05 (Ideal is 1.00)
This patented product is nearing marketing and will respond to the market expectations of the 100% renewable buildings and cities. It is estimated that the CO2 emissions responsibility of the built environment will be reduced by 10% by a penetration rate of 20% of this solar product. The same principle may be used on building facades, ships,
- The system may be mounted on the wind turbine towers which are redundant.
See Illustration 3 (Another Patent Pending)
Because the water temperature provided is optimally designed for every climatic conditions, customized for low-temperature heating and cooling equipment this product may globally satisfy the low-temperature district energy goals (Radiant wall: An earlier US patent application).
Attached three illustrations exhibit the marketability and innovative aspects from energy intensity, compactness, modularity.