Rural Battery

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Abstract:

This is a type of primary cell and battery which produces electricity from rural domestic waste material ASH. It is comprised of two electrodes, one is carbon (positive) and another is aluminum (negative). When these two electrodes are dipped in an ash and water mixture then electrons flow from negative terminal to positive terminal thus current flows from positive terminal to negative terminal.

Introduction:

In this model the electrolyte of the cell is ash-water solution, because wood or other solid burning materials contains metal or non-metal compound. When wood burns then the non-metals combines with oxygen and converts into oxides, and the oxides of non metals always volatile, but when metal combines with oxygen then also forms oxides of metals and these are non-volatile. Sometimes metals combines with non-metals and forms salts. Both metal oxides and salts produces electrolyte when they are mixed with water and the electrolyte produce electricity by reacting with anode and cathode plates of the cell.

Methodology:

To make a simple ash-water electrolyte cell at first semi liquid ash-water mixture is poured into an 89.74 cm3 volume cylinder which radius=2.3 cm and height=5.4 cm. After that one carbon rod/plate and aluminum rod/plate is dipped into the each of the cylinder without short circuited. Now each beaker is transformed into a cell which gives 1.20 voltage and 1mA approximately.

Cause of electricity production:

In this model the electrolyte of the cell is ash-water solution, because wood or other solid burning materials contains metal or non-metal compound. When wood burns then the non-metals combines with oxygen and converts into oxides, and the oxides of non metals always volatile, but when metal combines with oxygen then also forms oxides of metals and these are non-volatile. Sometimes metals combines with non-metals and forms salts. Both metal oxides and salts produces electrolyte when they are mixed with water and the electrolyte produce electricity by reacting with anode and cathode plates of the cell.

Reactivity series:

K>Na>Ba>Ca>Mg>Al>Zn>Fe>Ni>Sn>Pb>Cu>Hg>Ag>Pt>C

Chemical reactions:

Overall reactions:
2Al+2KOH+2H2O=2KAlO2+3H2
2Al+2NaOH+2H2O=2NaAlO2+3H2
2Al+Ca (OH) 2+2H2O=Ca (AlO2)2+3H2

Ionic reaction:

At positive plate: at negative plate:
C+2H+=H2+C+ Al+KO23- =KAlO2+Al-

Technical specification:

a. Nominal cell voltage is about 1.20 volt.
b. Current supplied by the cell is about 1mA per 20 cm3.
c. Economic, cheap, eco-friendly, non hazardous and simple in construction.
d. Raw materials are easily available and most of waste product.

Commercial uses

a. As cheap reserve cell.
b. As emergency light weight (consisting only anode and cathode plate with no electrolyte) battery for electricity source required in remote jungle areas. In this battery electrolyte will be filled in jungle by ash obtained from campfire.

Conclusion

If zinc anode is used instead of aluminum anode then the waste product discharged from the cell will contain zinc salts and compounds which is very useful in paddy field to enhance plant growth.

In future this type of battery may be a new non-conventional and renewable source of energy.

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  • ABOUT THE ENTRANT

  • Name:
    Chandan Chutia
  • Type of entry:
    individual
  • Profession:
    Student
  • Patent status:
    none