Limitless Energy from Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

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Cold fusion, combining protons (i.e., hydrogen nuclei or ions at or near room temperature) for usable heat is a promising approach for the future of energy. It can reduce our planet's reliance on fossil fuels, reducing pollution and other environmental issues (e.g., oil spills). However, the challenges lie in developing an appropriate, workable theory and a manufacturing approach for multiple applications.

Proposed Theory: Figure 1 presents an approach similar to xenon arc lamps, called electric arc, but scaled back to the nanometer range. It will initiate fusion using a cathode, anode, and electric arc. The electric field (Eneg) increases at the edges and tips of the cathode. Protons emitted from generators will gather more at these locations. Coulombic repulsion forces distance between protons.

When in very close proximity, the Nuclear Strong Force will overcome the Coulombic repulsion, and they will fuse. A strong negative voltage will generate a large Eneg on the cathode to achieve this, causing an electron arc to jump from the cathode to the anode across the protons, mostly tip to tip. Protons will head toward the arc and cathode. Electrons between protons will draw them together, reducing their distances. The arc defines the electron density and must be adjusted for attraction optimization. For fusion to occur:

(Proton Attraction) > (Proton Repulsion)     (1)

Expanding this:

(Cathode Eneg drawing protons together) + (Proton to electron attraction from arc) + (Force of proton collisions from generator) > (Proton to proton repulsion)     (2)

The items in Equation 2 reduce or eliminate the Coulombic barriers, allowing protons to fuse. This approach creates plasma; therefore, electrons will not stay in the protons' first electron orbital and form neutral hydrogen. The electron and proton count must be balanced so that fusing occurs but not too much to melt the circuits.

Manufacturing Implementation: Photolithography offers a repeatable mass-production process that will enable manufacturability. The anode and cathode can theoretically stretch across the wafer. Different-sized wafers for multiple applications and sub-nanometer structures are now achievable.

Heat can exit via the metal circuitry (e.g., copper) or through the bottom to a metal base, as shown in Figure 2.

Protons are available through various methods. Two examples are plasma electrolysis and glow discharge; fluorescent lighting uses the latter. In Figure 3, circles depict proton generators in an approximated system.

By moving the tip-to-tip distance in Figure 1 to even a 1-micron distance from each other, millions of repeatable nano-fusion devices are manufacturable on a four-inch (102-mm) disk.

Marketability: Cold fusion's potential applications are vast and varied. Manufactured wafers can be cut up and used in devices such as robots, appliances, and lights. Larger or combined wafers can replace batteries and engines in the automotive market and provide heat and electricity to houses and buildings. All this highlights its versatility and potential impact on our daily lives.

Hydrogen is the universe's most common element, and the approach described will be significant for space travel and colonization.

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  • ABOUT THE ENTRANT

  • Name:
    George Hulse
  • Type of entry:
    individual
  • Profession:
    Engineer/Designer
  • Number of times previously entering contest:
    never
  • George's favorite design and analysis tools:
    Light Tools, SolidWorks
  • George's hobbies and activities:
    Cold fusion, Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)
  • George belongs to these online communities:
    I want to find some!
  • George is inspired by:
    I love to create and feel a need to pursue cold fusion. Our planet needs it.
  • Patent status:
    none