The present study is based on the growing need to seek alternative water supply sources, taking into account the increase in consumption and the scarcity of drinking water that affects several regions of the world. For this purpose, a portable reverse osmosis desalination model was designed in order to meet the treatment of brackish water.
The filtering membrane system is an option increasingly studied and used, being able to reach high levels of water quality for consumption or even as a solution to replace operations and unit treatment processes. The filtration process consists of three streams: feed, permeate and retained product.
This study aimed to design a portable reverse osmosis unit, aimed at the desalination of brackish waters with a salinity content not exceeding 2100ppm. In addition to the membrane filtration system, the project is equipped with an after-treatment with an ultraviolet (UV) lamp, in order to kill microorganisms harmful to human health that may have permeated the membrane's nano pores.
The project was thought and elaborated to be as portable as possible, in order to be used in remote places and without resources. The prototype was modeled on the 3D platform of AutoCAD.
The theoretical and calculations involved the analysis of the operational capacity of a reverse osmosis membrane for brackish water, selection of the most appropriate hydraulic pump and analysis of the flow and quality of the permeate and concentrate and post-treatment with an ultraviolet (UV) system.
The project is able to meet the basic needs of a group of up to 8 people, aiming that the membrane can permeate up to 1300 liters/day of desalinated water.
It is possible and necessary to expand the use of brackish water treatment systems, in view of the relative ease of dimensioning and advances in the method of desalination by filtering membranes.