The effectiveness of diet control, exercise and weight loss in reducing the development of type 2 DM can be measured by evaluating the plasma concentrations of insulin, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, adiponectin, Lipoxin A4, BDNF, HbA1C in addition to plasma glucose. It is noteworthy that exercise increases plasma adiponectin, LXA4 (lipoxin A4), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) and reduces those of plasma HbA1C, insulin, IL-6, TNF-α and hs-CRP. Thus, effectiveness of exercise, diet control and medicines can be assessed by measuring these indices.
Patients with DM who tend to develop target organ damage retinopathy, neuropathy, coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) have increased concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, decreased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (including LXA4) and decreased levels of adiponectin. Thus, measurement of plasma IL-6, IL-10, adiponectin, hs-CRP will help in predicting the development complications of DM.
Plasma BDNF and LXA4 levels are low in those with obesity, DM and CVD. Thus, measurement of plasma BDNF and LXA4 levels will aid in predicting the development of DM and response to interventions such as exercise and diet control. Adequate exercise and diet control increases plasma BDNF and LXA4 levels and Hence, measuring plasma levels of BDNF and LXA4 along with measured along with plasma hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, adiponectin and insulin will help in predicting the development of future DM and response to exercise and diet control and adequacy of medications prescribed.
Thus, regular measurement of plasma hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, adiponectin, BDNF, LXA4, HbA1C, insulin serve as markers to predict the development of DM, response to therapeutic interventions employed and thus, aid in the prevention and management of diabetes.
Hence, it is proposed to develop an ELISA kit that measures these indices to predict the development of diabetes and to prognosticate the treatment or therapeutic interventions offered to stem the consequences of obesity and type 2 DM all in one go.