The production of crops requires an optimal amount of water in soil for healthy crop production. The moisture content of soil keeps reducing due to vaporization and other environmental conditions. Continuous inspection and control of moisture content is a very labor-intensive and time-consuming process. This requires 24/7 inspection of soil moisture content. The concentration of moisture content is very obvious and considerable at the time of seeding and watering of the crop i.e., at an early premature stage of crop.
The robot is very user-friendly in terms of services, which is in addition to reducing labor cost and saving time. The robot works without human input, and it follows the commands that are stored in its program. The robot is developed which is capable of inspecting, controlling, and monitoring the moisture needs of soil with the provision of generating statistical soil moisture requirements in a given time span according to the nature of the crop and environmental conditions. This will enable us to save the excessive water that keeps pouring into the field and getting vaporized aimlessly. The robot is equipped with a Capacitive Soil Moisture Sensor, Ultrasonic Sensor HC-SR04, Motor Driver L298N, LCD with I2C module, Arduino UNO, ESP32 WIFI Based Microcontroller Development Board, Mini Servo Motors, 12V pump and motors. The prototype is 245mm long and 190mm high.
The robot is programmed to maintain the moisture needs of wheat crop up to the 20% optimal limit. This can be modified according to the nature of crop and soil conditions. The robot is expected to reduce labor costs and increase production by around 5% to 10%. The agricultural robot provides system development for smart farming, and smart irrigation system will help in increasing the efficiency of energy, time saving, and proper utilization of water. This makes the irrigation system wireless by proposing the design with the features of GSM i.e., Global System for Mobile communication which provides remote control and inspection of moisture content in soil.