Prefab Solar Wall supplying both home heating and domestic hot water
Replace an exterior wall with one or more solar modules, ready for easy insertion in construction. Transform the external structure, renowned as an energy disperser, in a collection and heat transfer system with a south facade of automatic thermal diodes.
The mechanical resistance characteristics' of the solar module make it earthquake-resistant and ready to be fitted in a designated space to make up part of the structure, designed to measure, with water and power supply connections that immediately allow direct and controlled room heating and simultaneous production of domestic hot water and proper storage.
The 3.0 x 2.0 x 0.4 m prototypes meet the thermal requirements of a studio apartment, but larger apartments can be catered to by changing the number or size of the model in different geographic areas. Its verticality makes it useful at latitudes greater than 35°, taking care to have it South facing (or North facing in the Southern Hemisphere) as well as resolving the coincidence of the maximum thermal load period and that of the solar rays' angle of incidence almost perpendicular to the solar panels.
The Prefab Solar Wall lends itself to intensive housing developments as well as to individual dwellings, fitting in south facades and overcoming the need to find space in the buildings' profile, often inappropriate for the placement of solar collectors. Standing upright, the model protects the collectors from weather events: hail, rain, snow and wind, and provides the usual performance of a wall (structural, intrusion, stress resistance, weather resistance, thermal and acoustic insulation). Stagnation, which would result in over heating in the summer with liquid vaporization in the circuit (premature aging) due to the lack of use is no longer a problem.
The heat loss coefficient of the models built is equal to 0.28 W / m² K, well below the minimal value of the most evolved building with maximized simplified system and enhanced circuit independence: allowing the possibility to interface easily with alternative systems adopted in different residential buildings.
The fan coil built into the unit, selected as the terminal flexible heating needs change, can be equipped with a second heat exchanger powered by the auxiliary heat system. With appropriate temperature control you can provide the proper heating even in bad weather, limiting the demand to the difference between the total instantaneous heat requirements and solar availability.
After performing testing and analog calculations on site, the solar collection surface necessary for the module to attain self-sufficiency in good weather conditions, referring to the average winter (mid February) during the day were determined. For example, an apartment of 70 m2 in Rome is served by a single unit with a decent margin for domestic hot water storage. The same unit becomes exuberant in South Italy, but insufficient for the Po Valley region and locations with rigid winter climates.
The Prefab Solar Wall is the evolution in construction that defends depleting energy supplies and re-balances the natural environment.