Intermittency can be the curse of a solar PV cell, with no internal energy reserves to supply output energy when the radiating sun intensity is interrupted, even partially.
The simple solution is to:
(1) optimise the collection system by physical changes,
(2) include localised cooling and not worry about thickness,
(3) smooth and extend the energy output by including a
battery system, with each cell, and
(4) maximise the package with simple and effective output
options, building on the standard DC continuous output,
plus DC pulsed and now AC with variable frequency.
The benefits are massive. But there is more ...
from the black ooze of the nearby swamp, commonly known as (ASS) acid sulphate soils, iron sulphides and iron pyrites can be extracted to make the combination iron pyrites PV cells with lithium iron sulphide rechargeable batteries and integrated output switching. While the efficiency is low,
(5) the pricing is extremely cheap and very appealing. And an added bonus is that (6) the remaining ASS ground is better suited to arable food crop agriculture. A win! win! outcome.
The ratio of collection area to the battery capacity in each cell can be varied depending on location, prevailing cloud cover degrading effects and application matching. Load management can be included within the cell electronics to extend the number of cycles of the rechargeable battery, again to match the specific application.
AC output is not normally available from each cell. By the use of duplicated generation and storage systems, with smart included electronics that are possible with the battery system, then battery life extension options and switched output to produce DC pulsed and variable frequency AC becomes a practical low cost reality with increased efficiency benefits.