## 2+2=4 Stroke IC Engine with Tweaked PV= Constant Curve

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Objective is to improve burning, reduce pollution and extract more power from 4 stroke IC engine which follows Carnot cycle. Following suggestions have been made.
• Currently entire Carnot cycle consisting of 4 strokes is executed in a single cylinder- may be the automobiles may have many such cylinders. But in the proposed modification currently used one cylinder is split into two.
• Suction, compression will be in one cylinder which is at normal room temperature and hence fuel-air mixture ratio is unaffected by hot gases. In-coming fuel-air mixture and out going polluted gases do not mix at all..
• Carnot cycle is now drawn in 3 dimensional axes P, V and T.
• Currently as the piston moves inside the cylinder, volume expands linearly and thus gas law PV= constant applies.
• In the proposed solution Area of cross section of the piston is changed step wise, thus the PV= constant curve is altered to increase area under the curve and thus increase power output of the engine, which also results in better burning, lower pollution, higher efficiency.
• It must be noted that PV = Constant. Where force developed is F, Area of piston is A, displacement is d, volume V = Ad, Pressure = F/A. Hence PV= (F/A)*Ad = Fd= Constant. It is known that pressure drops as volume increases. It may be noted that Area of piston A has little influence on power.
• Energy = work done = Force * displacement= Fd. Hence longer we are able to maintain pressure or force, higher will be area under the curve. Thus by altering PV= constant curve energy extracted per cycle of the enclosed area in the Carnot cycle can be altered.
• Mathematically using excel sheet entire concept has been verified and given as one of the attachments. Hence present 4 stroke IC engine can be dramatically improved to increase power output, improve burning resulting in lower pollution too.
• It is well known that rotary type Wankel engine never took off. Piston based engine is ideal and efficient. But should a piston based engine have a simple cylinder and a moving piston – which has not changed for decades? The rate of change of volume with displacement of piston is linear in current technology, simple piston-cylinder arrangement. This needs to be changed. The engine design will be more complex, with more o-rings- but effort is worth it- if we wish to work towards higher kilometers/ liter and reduce pollution/ kilometer.
• Thus the new engine will be a 2+2= 4 stroke, variable area piston engine.

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• Name:
Mohan Divekar
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