Medical, Electronics, Energy transport, Energy harvesting
Koops-GranMat®, having Au or Pt nanocrystals of 4 nm or 2 nm diameter embedded in a carbonaceous matrix of 1 nm layer thickness between the C- crystals is fabricated with Focused Electron Beam Induced Processing (FEBIP) and carries at room temperature a current density > 1 GA/cm² in wires of 50 nm diameter using Bosons from a Bose Einstein Condensate. They have full quantum numbers and are formed in the Condensate level which extends through the deposited matter from 1 electron (-) and 1 hole (+) having parallel spin: The particle has 0 charge, spin 1, and a strong dipole moment. It moves by a field gradient of an inhomogeneous electric field. The Bosons are coherent in the condensate level. Single wires of 60 nm diameter can carry up to GA/cm² in current density and cannot get hot, since the nanocrystals dimension limits the phonon energy to 1 meV or 23 K due to phonon energy quantization. This means even at such very high current densities stays the material super cool ( 23 K). A normal metal delivers at room temperature electrons from the higher levels of the conduction band to the condensate level in the Koops-GranMat® wire or layer through an overlapping contact area. The maximum current is limited by the resistivity of the connecting normal metal, e.g. Gold: 250 KA/cm². To reach e.g. 1 mA current from a Pt/C tip of 5 nm radius with 2 nm crystals a connecting Pt/C overlap area to the Au needs to be > 65 nm in diameter! It was computed by scientist from CNRS, that a Superconducting Boson ( Cooper pair: 2 electrons, having antiparallel spin) forms an electromagnetic field of 600 nm diameter, by balancing the repelling electrostatic force by the attracting magnetic forces of the antiparallel spins. Koops-GranMat® ( Koops-Pair: electron and hole, having parallel spin) forms a particle in which only the sign of the contributing forces and charges are reversed, which means the Boson has the same diameter.
I concluded: all applications requiring superconducting materials and need to be cooled to below 40 K, can be built with Koops-GranMat® containing Koops-Pairs, but operate at room temperature, and require no cooling. The many applications which no longer need Helium or Liquid Nitrogen cooling are in medicine, electronics, and many technologies:
Current carrying wires for measurements or High Electric Power Transportation, Strong Magnets, NMR Detectors for medical imaging and deep well exploration, Electron sources for very high frequency power tubes and tube-amplifiers, GHz to 6 THz radiation power sources with high Signal to noise ratio ( > 7 at 6 THz!) for Information transmission, homeland security, and fingerprint analysis of chemicals and reaction products. Miniaturized switchable Brachytherapy soft X-ray radiation sources and powerful EUVL sources for high throughput Lithography. Very sensitive photon detectors, from 16 µm IR to X-rays, which require no cooling device. Highly efficient solar cells.
Koops-GranMat® brings a revolution to them all.