In modern physics, it is axiomatic that Entropy does not decrease automatically. For example, when two rooms of equal temperature are connected to each other, the temperature in one room will NOT automatically be higher than the temperature in the other room.
However, Mr. Richard Phillips Feynman, a famous genius scientist, describes a hint on how to “automatically decrease entropy” in his book “The Feynman Lectures on Physics”. He explained a Brownian ratchet that is a submicron-scale micromachine in which components move randomly by Brownian motion (see Figure 1).
The Brownian ratchet is a micromachine extracting useful work from Brownian motion. Details of the Brownian ratchet are omitted here. Please search the internet etc. for details of the Brownian ratchet.
As an IMPORTANT POINT, Mr. Feynman denies that the impeller and the ratchet of the Brownian ratchet rotate continuously in one direction. However, he and many other scientists have agreed the impeller and the ratchet rotate randomly. Naturally, the impeller and the ratchet rotate randomly because the Brownian motion is the random movement.
Figure 2 shows a micromachine of the present invention. In this micromachine, the temperature difference is automatically generated. The present invention realizes Maxwell’s demon using the Brownian motion. The micromachine shown in Figure 2 comprises a first room and a second room. In the first room, an impeller, a permanent magnet and a coil are provided. The permanent magnet and the impeller are fixed to the same rotating shaft. The coil is disposed near the permanent magnet. Submicron-scale strong permanent magnets are being developed by scientists at the University of Tokyo Japan. A resistor is provided in the second room.
Molecules randomly collide with the impeller. As shown in Figures 3-5, the collision of molecules with the impeller causes the impeller to randomly rotate. The rotation of the impeller is transmitted to the permanent magnet via the rotating shaft, and the permanent magnet rotates with the impeller.
When the permanent magnet rotates, electric currents are generated in the coil by electromagnetic induction. The electric currents generated by the electromagnetic induction are supplied to the resistor of the second room through the wiring. As shown in Figures 6-8, the resistor which is supplied the electric currents generates heat and the temperature of the second room rises. For example, even if the temperatures of the first and second rooms are uniform at first, a temperature difference is generated between the first room and the second room. That is, the Maxwell’s Demon can be realized.
The rotations of the magnet are suppressed by electromagnetic induction. On the other hand, according to Albert Einstein’s equations, magnitude of Brownian motion is proportional to temperature. In a high temperature environment, the magnet can rotate sufficiently, overcoming the inhibition caused by electromagnetic induction.
Some of the heat generated in the second room flows back into the first room. However, in a high temperature environment, the magnet actively rotates, and the amount of power generated exceeds the heat backflow. Therefore, the temperature difference is maintained.