Shipping transport changed to containers some decades ago but that created another transport bottleneck, the port crane, that can usually move about 200 containers per hour. Our 1000 containers per hour port crane system uses around 200 x,y,z movement crane modules, battery or green hydrogen powered, to pickup containers, move them away from the ship and place them on trains, trucks, other ships or stockpiles as required.
As an energy management system, the lifting of a loaded or unloaded container (usually done by two x,y,z movement 25 tonne capacity crane modules working together), is balanced by the unloading process soon after so the net energy consumed is relatively small. And using some 200 x,y,z movement crane modules, the units requiring recharge/refuelling are easily removed from the available store of modules for appropriate servicing.
The 25 tonne lifting capacity modules move around on a 2D 'rail track' network above the ship, loading dock, storage stockpile area and parked train flattops for easy complete and automated access in the intermodal transfer installation.