Transformer efficiency is the ratio of the output power to the input power. Output power is always lower than the input power due to energy losses. Besides measures put in place to reduce energy losses; including use of laminations, soft iron core and copper wires.

Automatic braking is a godsend for modern vehicles, but what happens when cameras and sensors become obscured?

A study published by NIOSH reported that the chaos, mud, and dirt of construction sites can overwhelm cameras and sensors.

Accidents at construction sites,

On a 4-wheel drive vehicle, the force transmitted by each wheel depends on the soil characteristics and the wheel load. This last depends on the slope (Figure 1) and on the external forces (Figure 2) coming from a winch, a bucket for a work loader,

Page 8 of 8