Expulsion is the molten metal ejected from the nugget under pressure, burning in the air with bright light and loud noise. Because the loss of liquid metal from the nugget expulsion always produces poor quality weld and it also consumes more than three times the energy needed to make a low temperature solid state weld. Majority of welding professionals believe you have to melt the metal in order to produce a nugget. I can easily prove this is untrue in the accompanying video. Fusion weld nugget and solid state nugget are different. The low temperature weld has invisible join line, no HAZ (heat affected zone) and is much stronger.

High temperature nugget has three parts: low temperature, medium temperature ...

In India thousands of railways travel everyday from one destination to another. The engine is the most important device of railway and it works on the principle of conversion of heat energy into mechanical energy.

A large amount of heat is dissipated through the fins from the engine when it starts and runs. The idea is to utilize this heat energy to generate electricity that may be used to lightening, cooling fan, charging of mobile/laptops and other appliances.

The idea of energy efficient railway for transportation seems to naturally introduce the concept of using waste heat to generate electricity to make the "Smart Railways." The main purpose of this project is to generate the maximum ...

Page 8 of 8