There is a need for nanoscale pores and slits for nanotechnology medical and research applications that cannot be produced using even state of the art lithography and etch technology. More specifically, pores and slits with dimensions down to less than 10 nanometers cannot be made reproducibly with full tunable control. Consequently, the tools available for applications such as DNA analysis, blood cell or other particle counting, nanofluidics, and numerous others are costly and inefficient at best.

This new idea uses technologies that may be > 20 years old to produce trenches and/or holes in substrates. Fig. 1 shows examples of holes Fig. 1A and trenches Fig. 1B formed on a substrate using processes from the 1990’s. ...

Last year, I had gone to the bakery at our University (Penn State) for a tour as part of a cooking club team. One of the first things I noticed during the tour was a large oven that had a narrow opening. These type of ovens are very common in the baking and cooking industry and their cleaning is still being done in a manual fashion, by having a "tiny" employee enter the space (when it is cool) and clean it manually.

The system has a large flat surface that needs cleaning (fairly easy to reach) but also a narrower vertical wall surface at the back where there is air flow during normal operation and lot of material/particles condense ...

QVLA is an LED based technology used for industrial position sensing. It utilizes an ultra-stable LED light source to fill a volume, such as a pneumatic cylinder, with diffuse light. As the amount of light measured within this volume changes, the resulting change can be resolved into linear or rotary motion. The resulting sensors are rugged, inexpensive, fast, and non-contact. These sensors could be used to replace traditional potentiometers, LVDT's, or magnetostrictive sensors all at a reduced cost and higher MTBF.

The principles that QVLA is based on such as closed loop optical feedback and integrating spheres are well known in the optics field. However we are the first to bring them all together in a small, inexpensive, easy ...

1.....The albedo value--(i.e., the percentage of solar radiation that is reflected from a surface)--of sea water is only 5-10%, whereas the albedo value of fresh snow is 80-90%. Accordingly, once the disintegration of an ice sheet has proceeded to the point where free water surfaces appear, the rate of further disintegration is very much accelerated due to the low albedo value of open sea water.

2...The Solution is to reinstate snow and ice cover and delay the melting of the Arctic Ice Cap beyond the seasonal September crisis level.

3...Making snow is a solution and by doing that in the locations ringed in red (see sidebar), remediation is possible since ...


The formation of coal occurs over a long period of time after the debris on the bottom of temperate forests, and other forests that get a good amount of rainfall and level of organic debris. These forest first form a product called peat as the water levels rise and debris fall to the floor of the water logged zone. After a while, water rises causes sediment to cover the debris in layers, compressing it more and more underground as the water levels drop each time. This eventually forms coal. The peat is useful as a fertilizer and as mulch to help landscapes grow. It is also used in agriculture to enhance crop growth. My design intends to look ...

Every year millions of people have to deal with damaged roads and potholes. The slow pace of repair work greatly hampers movement of people, goods and services and causes inconvenience to countless people. We intend to address the root cause of this problem, by developing an autonomous road repair system that would use an unconventional repair approach, i.e. spray injection patching to repair potholes. The system would be assisted by an on board image processing unit to identify and profile potholes so that the repair process can be carried out without external inputs, thus making the process faster, durable and cost effective.

Unique aspects of the machine:
More durable solutions: Patches last much longer as compared to conventional methods ...



The project aims at combining the designs of an earth mover as well as a robotic arm so as to provide flexibility in its working environment. A multi axis arm on the head of the earth mover helps in easy removal of debris from unreachable corners of a construction site.


The basic design of a modern earth mover has a head that can rotate with on the body of the earth mover. In this design however there is a separate rotating head replacing the conventional head of the earth mover. This head acts separately so as to achieve a multi axis rotation.


• Multi Utility earth mover designs can ...

Contour Crafting (CC) is a computerized construction method that 3D Prints large-scale structures directly from architectural CAD models. Walls are built up by forming their outer surfaces via extrusion of a paste-like material, such as concrete, and the use of a robotic trowel to provide a smooth contoured surface. CC is a very flexible technique, capable of constructing aesthetically pleasing “organic” curvilinear shapes as easily as “boxy” rectilinear shapes; and, as such, it has attracted strong interest from leading architects.

Contour Crafting is a major innovation that automates the construction of whole structures; and radically reduces the time and cost of construction. The result would be a revolution in the construction industry that would lead to affordable construction of ...

A critical step in the purification process is the removal of excess solvent to provide a pure product for chemical analysis and subsequent use. The rotary evaporator is a basic tool for removing excess solvent.

The AutoEvap is a new tool that extends the use of a standard rotary evaporator. AutoEvap is an addition to standard rotary evaporator systems that allows continuous drain of distillate as well as continuous feed of concentrate. Further considerations for this device were the need to gracefully recover from a sudden power loss such that it might start up in an undefined state during the power recovery in the lab.

By design the AutoEvap provides a pneumatic control and fiber optic sensor control that ...

The Next Generation Air Transportation System or NextGen is implementing or plans to implement a satellite-based air-traffic control system across the United States.

To The Next Generation Air Transportation System Planners:

The VTOL JetCar is coming! Here are some ideas as to how it can be managed:

- The Automated Vertical Flight Authorization Concept (page 2)
- Requesting automated vertical takeoff clearance (page 3)
- Human oversight (page 3)
- Aircraft pre-flight self-diagnostics sent to authorization
satellite for 'green-lighted' takeoffs within 'city limits' (page 5)

I urgently request that Vertical-Takeoff Authorization computerized subsystems hitch a ride on Air Traffic Management Satellites, that are scheduled for launch in the near future.

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