Fuel cells that directly convert chemical energy into electricity meet the demands for the clean energy industry of the future, primary owing to their striking advantages of the high-energy conversion efficiency that is not limited by the Carnot cycle, low/zero emission, and reliable and simple structure. Currently,
Light-emitting diodes (LED), like any semiconductor, emit heat during their operation. This is because a significant portion of electrical energy (75% – 85%) is converted to thermal energy which results in an increase in the temperature of the LED.
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